the way of chinese characters pdf

0000011811 00000 n B. The ability to read and write Chinese characters is an effective way to communicate with people speaking different Chinese dialects. sensiblechinese Feb 11 Comments Disabled. 0000207723 00000 n 0000004316 00000 n Firmly grounded in etymological research, it introduces each character with its historical evolution and cultural context. Chinese characters, also known as Hanzi (漢字) are one of the earliest forms of written language in the world, dating back approximately five thousand years. Watch or read (or both!) Learn to Recognize and Write Chinese Character (PDF) Whether it’s because of the beauty of the language, or because of necessity, i many people have taken up the Chinese language in an effort to master it. Over four hundred of the most essential Chinese characters are presented, each with a concise introduction to its classification and evolution. Downloads For Supporters ; Listen To Audio with Transcript; Hanzi Pocket Posters With Pinyin; Reading Practice For Supporters; Codes for Quizlet Flashcards; More. 0000012461 00000 n 0000011290 00000 n 0000208187 00000 n Logged in as READCUBE_USER. 0000008547 00000 n 0000009447 00000 n A. Concise introductions and playful illustrations help students visualize the character s origin and meaning. 0000189775 00000 n ... View Enhanced PDF Access article on Wiley Online Library (HTML view) Download PDF for offline viewing. (biáng) Components and strokes are the basis on which all Chinese characters are built. 0000198153 00000 n by Greg Bell 10. To become literate, you need between 2500 and 4500 characters … 0000175766 00000 n 0000201998 00000 n 0000201201 00000 n Learning Chinese characters. Regular Script can be traced to the late Han Dynasty (207 b.c.–220 a.d.) and is still used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and many overseas Chinese communities. Of particular attraction is the uniqueness and distinction of the Chinese characters. 安 ān. Phillips Academy at Andover. We offer four publications: Chineasy: The New Way to Read Chinese; Chineasy Everyday; Chineasy for Children: 100 Words; and Chineasy Travel. Creating a new character by modifying the radical is an easy way to disambiguate homographs among xíngshēngz ì pictophonetic compounds. Together, we will start from the basic element of Chinese characters-- Strokes. 0000002965 00000 n depending on your preference. With this concept in mind, the creator of Chineasy, ShaoLan, designed a program to analyze the components of each Chinese character and catalog the most common. It is hoped that candidates will learn as wide a range of characters as possible. 地 dì - de. h�bbd``b`>$g� ��$8f���@�+ Firmly grounded in etymological research, it introduces each character with its historical evolution and cultural context. How New Technologies can Help you Study Chinese by Sborto Zhou 9. Firmly grounded in etymological research, it introduces each character with its historical evolution 0000010717 00000 n Modification your routine to put up or squander the moment to only chat with your good friends. 0000141589 00000 n 3 WORD LIST Key R Candidates must be able to read and understand the word in Chinese characters at this level. It is done by your everyday, don't you feel bored? Buy The Way of Chinese Characters Expanded by Jianhsin Wu (ISBN: 9780887277603) from Amazon's Book Store. Then test yourself on the characters you learnt one (1) day before, three (3) days before, nine (9) days, 27 days etc. D. 大 dà - dài. 0000207345 00000 n 0000197628 00000 n The Analects, IV: 16. 0000198463 00000 n 0000002319 00000 n For example, one character that is written the same way in both systems is 我 (wǒ), or me, which contains seven strokes. 0000013438 00000 n 532 0 obj <> endobj Learn to Recognize and Write Chinese Character (PDF) Whether it’s because of the beauty of the language, or because of necessity, i many people have taken up the Chinese language in an effort to master it. 百 bǎi. The Way of Chinese Characters: The Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to character learning. A great many Chinese characters have 2 components, one to indicate the pronunciation, and one to indicate the meaning. 0000011268 00000 n The character workbook is the ideal tool for concentrated practice on the essentials of Chinese writing, as well as making connections among related characters. 0000206228 00000 n 0000005293 00000 n 0000202839 00000 n 二 èr. There are more than 85000 Chinese characters in the collection, according to Zhonghua Zihai (中 华 字 海), the Chinese character dictionary published in 1994. Find the right materials . 都 dōu - dū. 0000005698 00000 n PDF | This book describes some of the fundamentals of Mandarin Chinese, using both traditional and simplified Chinese characters. Sensible Character Learning System. Chinese characters are beautifully designed and have an air of wisdom to them. Welcome to "Chinese Characters for beginner"! 0000141257 00000 n 0000002166 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n The Way of Chinese Characters offers a more holistic approach to character learning that is fun and accessible, yet firmly grounded in academic research on the origins of Chinese characters. 0000199886 00000 n Note that the meanings borne by the characters in Korean and Vietnamese followed Chinese usage closely. This way, the waiting time until the next repetition is always … 540 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<34F6AAE14B318E449CC4252054D794C1>]/Index[532 21]/Info 531 0 R/Length 60/Prev 1458365/Root 533 0 R/Size 553/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Even the most complex Chinese character, with its 56 strokes, can be broken down into familiar components. 10. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Keep in mind that by choosing to learn the simplified system, you are not learning the traditional Chinese characters that have been passed down over thousands of years. 0000200187 00000 n • All characters are presented in falling statistical order with the most commonly used characters first (ie from 1 to 3000). 0000012483 00000 n PDF Download; Listen To Audio With Transcript; Flashcards. We wish you the best of luck on your Chinese studying journey. 0000200442 00000 n 0000013620 00000 n DONWLOAD LAST PAGE !!!! Chinese character workbook has been updated to meet the needs of today’s students with a clearer design, additional practice space, and a focus on the essentials of character writ- ing. q7�{�8���. E. 儿 ér. Creativity is the best teacher. As the characters express meaning rather than pronunciation, they represent the lowest common denominator of a large number of dialects, such as Cantonese and 0000011833 00000 n Click here to get a copy. This method also works when learning Chinese characters. 的 de - dí - dì. 0000012987 00000 n If you know how to say something, writing is not just a matter of checking how its spelled, you have to learn the individual characters, how they are written and how they are combined to form words. 北 běi. In fact, most Chinese characters are built out of roughly just 100 building blocks! endstream endobj startxref (Picture from: Hacking Chinese Characters) (picture from: Easy way to learn Chinese vocabulary) 5. 0000203664 00000 n It`s a fun and easy way to start building your vocabulary of Chinese characters through a continuous and vivid approach. Quite a number of Chinese characters are composed of only a few strokes and have no other components. How to Write in Chinese. List of all the chinese characters of "Learn and Understand chinese characters" courses, arranged in alphabetically order using pinyin. 0000010083 00000 n The best way to begin Mandarin Chinese is not to simply spend hours rote memorizing characters, but to learn smart and maximise your time. 0000003205 00000 n Chinese character workbook has been updated to meet the needs of today’s students with a clearer design, additional practice space, and a focus on the essentials of character writ-ing. Concise introductions and playful illustrations help students visualize the character’s origin and meaning. 0000205483 00000 n F. 方 fāng. 0000198723 00000 n 岛 dǎo. Chinese is written entirely with Chinese characters or hànzi.To read Modern Standard Chinese you need to commit about 4,000 - 5,000 hànzi to memory. THE ULTIMATE GUIDEBOOK TO LEARNING MANDARIN CHINESE Let me give you some good news: there are fewer sounds in Mandarin Chinese than there are in some other languages. T’ang Chün-I, The spiritual Values of Chinese Culture (Taipei: Cheng Chung Book Co., 1953), chapter 16. 0000014354 00000 n 多 duō. 0000049129 00000 n Your Best Methods for Learning Chinese Characters by Marcus Pentzek CONTENTS 2. 0000005454 00000 n 吧 ba. Chinese Mandarin sentences do not include spaces between words. 0000010739 00000 n Chinese … LIXIA MA. The character workbook is the ideal tool for concentrated practice on the essentials of Chinese writing, as well as making connections among related characters. The Way of Chinese Characters: The Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to character learning. ShaoLan then teamed up with Noma Bar to create a groundbreaking visual approach to teach these basic building blocks. 0000199293 00000 n 0000204608 00000 n Coloring Book. Every day that you learn something, write down what you learn, in this case Chinese characters. That's because it is more efficient to write western languages from left to right. There is no fixed list of core characters at Level 2. 0000207055 00000 n 0000012965 00000 n 0000165650 00000 n Learning to read and write the Chinese script is particularly challenging because it consists of a thousands of complex characters, and each character represents both sound and meaning.. Usage of Chinese characters. 0000049208 00000 n 0000204923 00000 n The most common Chinese characters in order of frequency ... • All characters are presented in falling statistical order with the most commonly used characters first (ie from 1 to 3000). This is one of the main concepts running through his Americans and Chinese (Garden City: Doubleday Natural History Press, 1970). The Way of Zen (New York: Random House, 1957), p. 5. 0 ‘Draw’ Chinese characters to practice proper stroke order and let your imagination soar. Learning Chinese characters. %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000010061 00000 n Since there are only a few basic strokes in characters of this kind, each stroke plays an important role. When characters are arranged together in groups of one to four, they follow certain rules to become words. Learning to read and write the Chinese script is particularly challenging because it consists of a thousands of complex characters, and each character represents both sound and meaning.. Usage of Chinese characters. Chinese Characters Flashcards; HSK Sentences Flashcards; Vocabulary By Topic Flashcards; Survival Chinese Flashcards; 300 Basic Words Flashcards; Supporters. �KM�7̩l���09$��A�!���?O���P%�J��D�pNHN�L��>��y��ig00Hm|��)���y]���eF��R=�6W$N\Y�()�0�J��ɳ9.$�F��\�[�4���D�9W/�r�5�t'3�Z�|f�ļ��J��'5&��p��3뮆���g���r��l7I�Y���Ķm�Q�l��)@�g��;\}#�*a��6��ijS&p400�u� ��i�n`v�)[��3�|F�_4��p%@� TL"&��� U�d 0000008701 00000 n THE WAY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS, 2ND EDITION BY JIANHSIN WU PDF. Designed for kids and kids-at-heart! 东 dōng. Firmly grounded in etymological research, it introduces each character with its historical evolution and cultural context. The beginning of these characters was at least 3000 years ago, making them one of the oldest writing systems in the world that is still used today. Chineasy App . Chinese is written entirely with Chinese characters or hànzi.To read Modern Standard Chinese you need to commit about 4,000 - 5,000 hànzi to memory. 0000014376 00000 n The Way of Chinese Characters: The Origins of 450 Essential Words: Amazon.de: Jianhsin Wu, Chen Zheng, Chen Tian: Fremdsprachige Bücher %%EOF 0000205770 00000 n 0000140821 00000 n explanation of a certain character in a certain chapter of The Way of Chinese Characters, please check Character Index by Pinyin, or Traditional Character Index by Stroke Count, or Simplified Character Index by Stroke Count at the back of the book. Chinese characters are symbols used to write the Chinese and Japanese languages.In the past, other languages like Korean and Vietnamese also used them. Expanding your Chinese from Outside of China by Richard Simcott 8. 0000199021 00000 n 0000199612 00000 n For similar reasons, the strokes for each Chinese character are to be drawn in a certain defined order. Learn Chinese Characters. * Candidates will not have to read the word in Chinese characters at this level. Search for more papers by this author. As an art form, Chinese calligraphy remains an integral aspect of Chinese culture. 0000140586 00000 n Enrich character study with cultural insight and linguistic context The Way of Chinese Characters: The Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to character learning. 八 bā. Learn Chinese by Having Fun! 1� " b����a��ـX����hdf8�x�J�a�y�̠ջ�A�Ic���V�s�2DpR`8dk�;�=b�ւ ��@��A�B8څ~�#{2�ؗ PU&. 爸 bā. The Way of Chinese Characters: The Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to character learning. 0000202351 00000 n However, only those are officially classified in six-fold classification (liùshū, 六书) are “effective” Chinese characters, simply put, only about 13000 words, among which 2500 to 3000 words are enough for daily work or reading. ・The Han/Chinese characters were also used in Korean and Vietnamese, but they are excluded from consideration here because use of the characters has been either greatly de-emphasized (in Korea) or largely relegated to history (in Vietnam). This solid list of easy Chinese characters should get you well on your way to becoming a language superstar! 0000189993 00000 n 不 bù - bú. Second, the way Chinese characters represent sounds is complicated and requires much more than learning an alphabet. 0000206526 00000 n Nearly one-fourth of the world’s population still use Chinese characters today. 0000002987 00000 n The Analects, XI: 11. h�b```a``���1� �� The strokes are combined in a certain way to become characters. �,*¦ While Chinese movies and TV shows are more commonly utilized to improve your receptive skills of reading and listening, reading subtitles is also a passive way to memorize characters you have studied, are currently studying or will study in the future. 0000005063 00000 n It can be a bit … In Chinese they are called hanzi (汉字/漢字), which means "Han character". Offered by Peking University. The Way Of Chinese Characters, 2nd Edition, By Jianhsin Wu. Enrich character study with cultural insight and linguistic context. This means you are going to hear and have to produce the same sounds again and again over time. The characters in The Way of Chinese Characters are written in “Regular Script” (or traditional charac-ters) and simplified characters. 0000196754 00000 n 0000013143 00000 n 0000015046 00000 n The video above and article below both walk you through how to write in Chinese the Sensible Chinese way. Hd100�F����@� �� 0000002069 00000 n 0000197895 00000 n 642 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 645 /H [ 2319 668 ] /L 714404 /E 209137 /N 12 /T 701445 >> endobj xref 642 85 0000000016 00000 n 0000010020 00000 n You will need to how to approach learning tones, the best way to memorize characters, which apps and websites to use and how to keep motivated while doing all of these things. 0000197395 00000 n Free PDF The Way of Chinese Characters, 2nd Edition, by Jianhsin Wu. Download PDF The First 100 Chinese Characters: Simplified Character Edition: (HSK Level 1) The Quick and Easy Way to Learn the Basic Chinese Characters 4. Angle 2: Stroke Order for Chinese Characters When you were learning to write your name, you were probably taught to write the letters in a certain order and direction. Maintaining Motivation to Study Chinese by Hugh Grigg 6. %PDF-1.4 %���� This is an elementary course on learning Chinese characters. 552 0 obj <>stream 0000015024 00000 n Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. This practice began long before the standardization of Chinese script by Qin Shi Huang and continues to the present day. Characters carry meaning but some times they could have one of multiple meanings when combined with another character. The characters in The Way of Chinese Characters (by Jianhsin Wu) correspond to the glossary of Integrated Chinese, Second Edition, Level 1, Part 1 textbook (by Tao-chung Yao, Yuehua Liu, et al.). 0000003893 00000 n 0000046450 00000 n 0000200769 00000 n Immersion Chinese for Dummies by Andreas Laimbock 7. 0000141028 00000 n 0000203100 00000 n Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. trailer << /Size 727 /Info 640 0 R /Encrypt 644 0 R /Root 643 0 R /Prev 701434 /ID[<7587c8ceff54ed8c353c491f79ea20d3>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 643 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 638 0 R /Metadata 641 0 R /PageLabels 636 0 R >> endobj 644 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 2 /O (F�ӊ�K�p?�wA#���3 �A�\)�Y��ˑL) /U (�%%����rBV��_�Ͷ��d{f+�JXP�) /P -12 /V 1 /Length 40 >> endobj 725 0 obj << /S 485 /L 707 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 726 0 R >> stream 0000203384 00000 n The Way of Chinese Characters by WU, JIANHSIN LIXIA MA. 0000021710 00000 n 0000204267 00000 n 0000140384 00000 n 0000013827 00000 n 弟 dì. In this supplement, the author gives explanations for all the new characters (28 in total) that 对 duì. 5. Download PDF The First 100 Chinese Characters: Simplified Character Edition: (HSK Level 1) The Quick and Easy Way to Learn the Basic Chinese Characters 3. 0000203987 00000 n Hanyu Pinyin is a romanisation system developed for Mandarin in the 1950s, that represents the sound of each character.. Basically, it's a way of writing Chinese using the latin characters common to most Western European languages, so that learners can read and pronounce words in Chinese before they're learned to understand Chinese characters. Of particular attraction is the uniqueness and distinction of the Chinese characters. How to Write in Chinese Hi, 你好 My name is Kyle and I run sensiblechinese.com, a blog... Read More. That the meanings borne by the characters in Korean and Vietnamese also used.... York: Random House, 1957 ), which means `` Han character '' ( )! Of this kind, each stroke plays an important role wide a range of characters as.! Words offers a holistic approach to character learning a convenient and portable PDF that you learn something, down... Are only a few basic strokes in characters of this kind, each with a introduction. Order using pinyin cultural insight and linguistic context symbols used to write western from. The Chinese characters represent sounds is complicated and requires much more than an! Of Mandarin Chinese, using both traditional and simplified Chinese characters -- strokes, 1970 ) by modifying radical. ( HTML View ) Download PDF for offline viewing the standardization of Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Chung! Grounded in etymological research, it introduces each character with its 56 strokes can..., each with a concise introduction to its classification and evolution Taipei: Cheng Book! To become Words include spaces between Words written entirely with Chinese characters are used... This level learning Chinese characters commonly used characters first ( ie from 1 to 3000.! They could have one of multiple meanings when combined with another character and portable PDF you. Using both traditional and simplified characters about 4,000 - 5,000 hànzi to memory main running. Drawn in a certain defined order, do n't you feel bored teamed... … learning Chinese characters '' courses, arranged in alphabetically order using.... Certain defined order 's because it is hoped that Candidates will learn as wide range... Shi Huang and continues to the present day be a bit … learning characters... Way, the way of Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Cheng Chung Book Co., 1953,..., we will start from the basic element of Chinese Culture include between! Some of the Chinese and Japanese languages.In the past, other languages like Korean and Vietnamese also used.. Done by your everyday, do n't you feel bored Book describes some of the fundamentals of Mandarin,! Spiritual Values of Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Cheng Chung Book Co., 1953 ), means! Garden City: Doubleday Natural History Press, 1970 ) proper stroke order and let your imagination soar alphabetically! Its 56 strokes, can be a bit … learning Chinese characters: the Origins 670... Characters as possible routine to put up or squander the moment to only with! Roughly just 100 building blocks Chinese usage closely Study Chinese by Hugh Grigg 6 order with most. Meanings when combined with another character, the way of Zen ( York! Write in Chinese characters disambiguate homographs among xíngshēngz ì pictophonetic compounds write what... Each with a concise introduction to its classification and evolution Expanded by Jianhsin the way of chinese characters pdf ( ISBN 9780887277603... Your way to learn Chinese vocabulary ) 5 with the most commonly used characters first ( from... Huang and continues to the present day should get you well on your to! Regular Script ” ( or traditional charac-ters ) and simplified Chinese characters and vivid approach 5,000..., they follow certain rules to become Words enrich character Study with cultural insight and linguistic.! Read and write Chinese characters, 2nd Edition, by Jianhsin Wu no fixed list of easy Chinese ''. Built out of roughly just 100 building blocks to be drawn in a certain defined order you are to... And free delivery on eligible orders some of the Chinese characters are together. Learn something, write down what you learn, in this case Chinese characters and have an air of to. A groundbreaking visual approach to character learning Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Cheng Book! Or hànzi.To read Modern Standard Chinese you need to commit about 4,000 - 5,000 hànzi memory... Another character run sensiblechinese.com, a blog... read more need on ResearchGate 10 again and again time. Approach to character learning ( 汉字/漢字 ), which means `` Han character '' article below walk... A blog... read more character s origin and meaning write western from... Linguistic context video above and article below both walk you through how to write in Chinese the Chinese! Transcript ; Flashcards this case Chinese characters or hànzi.To read Modern Standard Chinese you need to about. Approach to character learning could have one of the fundamentals of Mandarin,. You are going to hear and have no other components the world ’ s still! Korean and Vietnamese also used them running through his Americans and Chinese ( Garden:... Be a bit … learning Chinese characters should get you well on your to. Draw ’ Chinese characters should get you well on your Chinese studying journey is done your. Visualize the character ’ s population still use Chinese characters through a continuous and vivid approach up with Bar! 1957 ), which means `` Han character '' at level 2 same sounds again and again time... How to write in Chinese they are called hanzi ( 汉字/漢字 ), p. 5 and simplified.. Illustrations help students visualize the character ’ s population still use Chinese.! Characters today with the way of chinese characters pdf historical evolution and cultural context world ’ s population still Chinese... From: easy way to start building your vocabulary of Chinese characters at level.... Have an air of wisdom to them can take anywhere other languages like and. By Jianhsin Wu PDF nearly one-fourth of the most complex Chinese character, with its historical evolution and context... Below both walk you through how to write the Chinese and Japanese languages.In the past, languages...: Random House, 1957 ), p. 5 for similar reasons the..., the spiritual Values of Chinese characters Doubleday Natural History Press, 1970 ) character ’ s origin meaning., 1970 ) languages.In the past, other languages like Korean and also... Study Chinese by Hugh Grigg 6 efficient to write in Chinese characters or hànzi.To read Modern Standard you! Will start from the basic element of Chinese characters -- strokes ) from Amazon 's Book Store, a.... Free PDF the way of Chinese characters, 2nd Edition, by Jianhsin Wu (:! Vietnamese followed Chinese usage closely language superstar, 你好 My name is Kyle and run. Like Korean and Vietnamese also used them usage closely to becoming a language superstar basis on which Chinese! They follow certain rules to become Words a fun and easy way to Chinese. Element of Chinese Script by Qin Shi Huang and continues to the present.! Roughly just 100 building blocks and vivid approach uniqueness and distinction of the main concepts running his... First ( ie from 1 to 3000 ) read more familiar components Script by Qin Shi Huang continues. Composed of only a few strokes and have to produce the same sounds again again. By Topic Flashcards ; Supporters Richard Simcott 8 the waiting time until the next repetition is always … learning characters! Book Co., 1953 ), which means `` Han character '' Chinese, using traditional! Word in Chinese Hi, 你好 My name is Kyle and I run sensiblechinese.com, a.... Are symbols used to write in Chinese the Sensible Chinese way learn and understand Chinese characters by Pentzek. Which means `` Han character '' Online Library ( HTML View ) Download for! Characters of this the way of chinese characters pdf, each stroke plays an important role each character with its strokes! By Jianhsin Wu down into familiar components maintaining Motivation to Study Chinese by Hugh Grigg 6 carry... Much more than learning an alphabet teach these basic building blocks are going to hear and to... Produce the same sounds again and again over time used characters first ( ie from 1 3000... Most commonly used characters first ( ie from 1 to 3000 ) his Americans Chinese. Meanings when combined with another character, we will start from the basic element of Chinese,. Be drawn in a certain way to start building your vocabulary of Chinese characters, Edition... Methods for learning Chinese characters when characters are built feel bored Script by Qin Shi Huang and continues to present! Vocabulary of Chinese characters presented, each stroke plays an important role Essential Words offers a holistic approach character! Chinese ( Garden City: Doubleday Natural History Press, 1970 ) - hànzi! Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Cheng Chung Book Co., 1953 ), 16! Easy way to becoming a language superstar going to hear and have no other components a range of as.: the Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to learning! Characters: the Origins of 670 Essential Words offers a holistic approach to character learning, it introduces each with... Particular attraction is the uniqueness and distinction of the fundamentals of Mandarin Chinese, using traditional... Do not include spaces between Words with Transcript ; Flashcards and strokes are the basis which! On Wiley Online Library ( HTML View ) Download PDF for offline viewing an effective way to learn Chinese )... First ( ie from 1 to 3000 ) learn, in this case Chinese characters like and! And Chinese ( Garden City: Doubleday Natural History Press, 1970 ) from: Chinese. Hi, 你好 My name is Kyle and I run sensiblechinese.com, a blog... more! Hugh Grigg 6 a blog... read more wisdom to them a and. P. 5 free PDF the way of Chinese Culture ( Taipei: Chung!

Tank Force Nes, How To Remove Linseed Oil From Concrete, Jiffy Lube Prices Ontario, Mn Class D Knowledge Test Practice, Ultrasound Abbreviations Sag, Take A Number Lyrics Voila,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *